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Buku Teks Bahasa Inggris Akademik Berbasis Kompetensi untuk Mahasiswa Jurusan Non-Bahasa Inggris (Penelitian dan Pengembangan di Perguruan Tinggi Negeri di Jawa Tengah dan DIY)

DISERTASI. Promotor: (I) Prof. Dr. Joko Nurkamto, (II) Prof. Dr. Herman J. Waluyo, (III) Prof. Dr. St. Y. Slamet, Program Doktor, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta (2014)

##article.authors##

  • Dr. Imroatus Solikhah IAIN Surakarta

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Imroatus Solikhah. (T. 840 908 003). ([email protected]). 2014. Buku  Teks Bahasa Inggris Akademik Berbasis Kompetensi untuk Mahasiswa Jurusan Non-Bahasa Inggris (Penelitian dan Pengembangan di Perguruan Tinggi Negeri di Jawa Tengah dan DIY). Disertasi.  Program Studi  Doktor Pendidikan Bahasa Indonesia. Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan.  Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS), Surakarta. Pembimbing: (I)  Prof. Dr. Joko Nurkamto, M.Pd (Promotor),  (II)  Prof. Dr. Herman J. Waluyo, M.Pd (Ko-Promotor I), dan (III)  Prof. Dr. St. Y. Slamet, M.Pd (Ko-Promotor II).

            Keberadaan buku teks Bahasa Inggris untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY bervariasi.  Buku teks belum berbasis kompetensi dan belum mengacu pada analisis kebutuhan.  Buku teks tersebut perlu disempurnakan dan MKDU Bahasa Inggris diubah menjadi berbasis kompetensi.

            Tujuan umum penelitian ini ialah: “Mengembangkan buku teks Bahasa Inggris Akademik Berbasis Kompetensi untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY”.  Tujuan  khusus penelitian ialah untuk: (1)  mendeskripsikan kualitas buku teks Bahasa Inggris untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY, (2) merumuskan tingkat kebutuhan buku teks EAP berbasis kompetensi untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY, (3) menjelaskan proses pengembangan buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi untuk mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY, dan (4) menemukan keefektifan buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi untuk meningkatkan kompetensi bahasa Inggris mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY.

            Penelitian menggunakan rancangan R&D (Research and Development) model Borg & Gall (1993; 2003), dalam empat tahap: eksplorasi,  pengembangan produk, pengujian  keefektifan produk, dan diseminasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di enam PTN di Jawa Tengah dan DIY, yaitu UNDIP, UNNES, UNS, UNSOED, UGM dan UNY. Penelitian dilaksanakan dua kali Juli-Desember 2011 untuk tahap eksplorasi dan November-Desember 2013 sampai Maret 2014 untuk uji pengembangan dan pengujian keefektifan produk.               Penelitian ini menghasilkan beberapa temuan.  Pertama, tahap eksplorasi menghasilkan prototipe buku, analisis kebutuhan dan silabus EAP  Berbasis Kompetensi. Prototipe dikembangkan berdasarkan tiga unit embrio menjadi 10 unit calon prototipe buku. Setelah dibahas dalam FGD dan direvisi berdasarkan hasil uji ahli, produk awal buku teks berubah menjadi prototipe buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi.

Kedua, tahap pengembangan menghasilkan buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi melalui uji lapangan. Tujuan uji-coba ialah agar prototipe mencapai standar kelayakan sebagai buku teks. Uji-coba dilakukan pada 46 mahasiswa EAP di UPTP2B UNS,  mengajarkan enam unit isi buku selama enam pertemuan melibatkan dua dosen kolaborator dan dua ahli pengajaran bahasa.  Preliminary field testing menghasilkan revisi jumlah teks, tujuan pembelajaran, latihan, dan kegrafikan. Selain itu, model silabus BSNP direvisi dan ditambah dengan EAP Delta Cambridge Syllabus. Masukan teknis hasil uji lapangan ialah penegasan bahwa tujuan EAP ialah untuk mencapai literasi akademik dengan materi pokok kosa kata akademik, grammar, membaca dan menulis. Keterampilan membaca mencakup: literal, inferential, critical comprehension.  Menulis difokuskan pada paragraf, komposisi, dan esai Test of Written English untuk TOEFL.  Kosa kata meliputi kosa kata umum 1.000-2.000 dan kosa kata akademik.  Grammar akademik diajarkan beriringan dengan kosa kata dan teks membaca.   

Ketiga, tahap pengujian keefektifan Buku teks dilakukan dalam main field testing kepada 115 mahasiswa UNY dan 120 mahasiswa UNDIP, mengajarkan 10 unit isi buku selama 12 pertemuan. Pengujian menggunakan desain eksperimen; mahasiswa UNY ditetapkan sebagai kelompok eksperimen diajar menggunakan Buku Teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi dan mahasiswa UNDIP sebagai kelas kontrol diajar menggunakan bahan ajar buatan dosen.  Hasil uji eksperimen  menggunakan SPSS Release 17 menunjukkan harga t = 6.267; dan manual t=6.597 (p=0.05; t-tabel = 1.671). Ho ditolak dan penelitian signifikan. Ini berarti Buku Teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi efektif untuk meningkatkan kompetensi bahasa Inggris mahasiswa jurusan non-bahasa Inggris di PTN Jawa Tengah dan DIY.

Keempat, produk penelitian didiseminasi melalui jurnal internasional yang diterbitkan dua kali dan dicetak dalam bentuk buku untuk dipasarkan. Artikel pertama English for Academic Purposes Voices: A Survey on Practices and Challenges in the State Universities of Central Java, Indonesia terbit di International Journal of Academic Research, July 2013, Volume 5, Number 4. Publikasi pertama menghasilkan masukan agar peneliti menggunakan Delta Cambrigde Syllabus. Artikel kedua, A Competency-Based Textbook for the Learners of Non-English Program (Research and Development in State Universities in Central Java and Yogjakarta) Indonesia was published in the International Journal of Language and Literature August, 2014 Volume 5 No. 3.  Produk berupa buku berjudul English for Academic Purposes: a Competency-Based Textbook for EFL Learners (Agustus 2014; ISBN: 979-1562-202) dipasarkan di toko buku.

Peneliti merumuskan saran berikut.  Pertama, dosen MKDU Bahasa Inggris hendaknya tidak ragu menggunakan Buku Teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi karena buku tersebut sudah teruji keefektifannya. Kedua, Program Studi pengelola MKDU Bahasa Inggris hendaknya berperanserta merancang implementasi program EAP Berbasis Kompetensi, dengan menggunakan EAP Delta Syllabus dan buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi. Ketiga, balai bahasa hendaknya menetapkan literasi akademik, EAP Delta Syllabus, dan buku teks EAP Berbasis Kompetensi sebagai materi pembanding.  Keempat, universitas hendaknya mengadaptasi literasi akademik bahasa Inggris sebagai kompetensi minimal mahasiswa dan menstandarkan MKDU Bahasa Inggris sebagai mata kuliah yang layak dijual.  Kelima, peneliti lanjutan di bidang yang sama diharapkan mempertajam atau memodifikasi desain penelitian dengan memfokuskan pada aspek keterbacaan, korpora dari teks otentik berkosa kata 1.000-2.000, kosa kata akademik, dan  menulis. Selain itu, pelaksanaan preliminary field testing dan main field testing harus dipersiapkan lebih mantap dan solid sejak awal dari aspek kecukupan sumber daya, tim dosen, dan tim ahli.

   Kata Kunci:  Buku Teks, Bahasa Inggris Akademik, Kompetensi, Pengembangan.

 

ABSTRACT

 Imroatus Solikhah. (T. 840 908 003). ([email protected]). 2014.  A Competency-Based  EAP Textbook for Learners of Non-English Program (Research and Development at State Universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta). Doctorate Dissertation. Study Program Doctor in Bahasa Indonesia, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta. Advisors: (I) Prof. Dr. Joko Nurkamto, M.Pd (Promotor),  (II) Prof. Dr. Herman J. Waluyo, M.Pd (Co-Promotor I), and (III)  Prof. Dr. St. Y. Slamet, M.Pd (Co-Promotor II).

 

            The advent of English textbooks for English for the Basic General Course  (MKDU Bahasa Inggris) at State Universities (PTN) in Central Java and DIY varies to some extent.  Neither is the aim of the textbook devised for competency basis nor it refers to needs analysis of the learners.  It is evidence that the textbook be revitalized for a Competency-Based EAP textbook.   

            The general objective of this study is: “To develop a competency-based EAP textbook for students of the non-English department in state universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta”.  The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to describe the quality of  English textbook for non-English department students in the state universities in Central Java and Yogjakarta, (2) formulate needs analysis for the competency-based EAP textbook for students of the non-English department in the universities in Central Java and Yoyakarta, (3) to explain the process of developing the competency-based EAP textbook for the non-English department in state universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta, and (4) to find the effectiveness of the competency-based EAP textbook to increase English competency of non-English department students in the state universities in Central Java and Yogyakarta.

This study uses R&D (Research and Development) model from Borg & Gall (1993; 2003) relying on four phases of research:  exploration, development, testing, and dissemination.  The study took place in six universities in Central Java and Yogjakarta, including UNDIP, UNNES, UNS, UNSOED, UGM, and UNY.  The research was conducted in July to December 2011 for the exploration phase and November-December 2013 to March 2014 for the preliminary field testing and the main field testing through an experimental design in the second phase.  

This study discovered the following findings. First, the exploration stage revealed needs analysis, syllabus, and initial prototype of a competency-based EAP textbook consisting of 10 units, extended from a three-unit embryo.  Contents of the syllabus and initial product were further presented in the Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Revisions were based on FGD and expert judgment to achieve a prototype.

Second, the development phase achieved a competency-based EAP textbook through preliminary field testing. The purpose of preliminary testing is to improve the prototype for the legibility standard of a textbook. Testing was conducted on 46 EAP students at UPTP2B of UNS teaching six units for six meetings and involving two collaborator lecturers and two language experts. The results of the test admit revisions on the number of texts, objectives, exercises, and gravity. In addition, BSNP syllabus model was revised and the Delta Cambridge Syllabus was utilized. Accordingly, the results of the test contend that the objective of EAP is to achieve academic literacy incurring core materials on academic vocabulary, grammar, reading, and writing. Reading implements literal, inferential, and critical comprehension. Writing focuses on paragraph, composition, and Test of Written English for TOEFL. Contents of vocabulary include 1,000-2,000 general words and academic words. Grammar for academics is served in the context relevant to vocabulary and reading passages.    

Third, to examine the effectiveness of the Competency-Based EAP Textbook through a significance test, the researcher used an experimental design.  The study was conducted with 115 students in UNY as the experimental group and 120 students in UNDIP as the controlled group. Data analysis using SPSS Release 17.0 showed t= 6.267 and t=6.597 for manual (p=0.05; t-table = 1.671). This means that Ho is rejected and the study is significant. It is evident that the Competency-Based EAP Textbook is effective to increase students’ English competency.

Fourth, the products of this study were disseminated in an international journal twice and in the form of a textbook for bookmarklet. Firstly, English for Academic Purposes Voices: A Survey on Practices and Challenges in the State Universities of Central Java, Indonesia was published in the International Journal of Academic Research, July 2013, Volume 5, Number 4. This publication revealed a suggestion to use Delta Cambridge Syllabus.  Secondly, A Competency-Based Textbook for the Learners of Non-English Program (Research and Development in State Universities in Central Java and Yogjakarta) Indonesia was published in the International Journal of Language and Literature August, 2014 Volume 5 No. 3. Finally, a textbook English for Academic Purposes: a Competency-Based Textbook for EFL Learners (August 2014; ISBN: 979-1562-202) was printed for the market sale. 

            The findings admit some suggestions. First, lecturers of MKDU Bahasa Inggris are expected to use with confidence A Competency-Based EAP English textbook as this book has empirical superiority. Second, the study program can implement a competency-based EAP program, Delta Cambridge Syllabus, and Competency-Based EAP Textbook. Third, the Language Center should modify the objective of EAP Program to achieve academic literacy, and use Delta Cambridge Syllabus and Competency-Based Textbook.   Fourth, policymakers in a university should include academic literacy for the core materials of MKDU Bahasa Inggris, advocating literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension; academic vocabulary, general vocabulary on 1,000 to 3,000, academic grammar, and writing for academic contexts.  Fifth,  future researchers of the same field could improve or modify the research designs focusing on the readability of the reading texts, intensifying corpora, authentic texts covering 1,000-2,000 vocabulary, academic vocabulary, and put more intensity on writing practices.  In addition, the logistics of R&D researches, i.e. resources, teamwork, and experts team should be well prepared since early conduct.

 

 

 

 

Key-Words: Textbook, English for Academic Purposes, Competency,  Development.

 

Posted

2020-11-19